" Imagination (future) is more important than knowledge (present)" -  Albert Einstein

              愛因斯坦 (物理學大師) - 「想像比智識更重要」。


                          Physical (present)         Psychological

Eustress                hard                                happy (positive imagination)

Distress                 hard                                hard



1) 身體細胞組織器官病


2) 心理病


3) 破壞海馬體長期記憶細胞,新信息入不腦,引致不健康決定,行為病

Stress Changes How People Make Decisions

ScienceDaily (Feb. 28, 2012)


It's a bit surprising that stress makes people focus on the way things could go right,

 (有病) 壓力令人低估 (醫療) 行動之可能壞處、高估行動之可能好處。短期不行動不安心。

when people are put under stress -- by being told to hold their hand in ice water for a few minutes, for example, or give a speech ,they start paying more attention to positive information and discounting negative information.

"Stress seems to help people learn from positive feedback and impairs their learning from negative feedback,"......The increased focus on the positive also helps explain why stress plays a role in addictions, and people under stress have a harder time controlling their urges.

"The compulsion to get that reward comes stronger and they're less able to resist it," Mather says. So a person who's under stress might think only about the good feelings they'll get from a drug, while the downsides shrink into the distance.

When men are under stress, they become even more willing to take risks.

When women are stressed, they get more conservative about risk. Mather links this to other research that finds, at difficult times, men are inclined toward fight-or-flight responses, while women try to bond more and improve their relationships.





1) 人性弱點 - 怕死怕病,負面驅動力大, inappropriate amygdala sensiivity , fight or flight primitive negative  response

2) 認知偏差

3) 長期記憶 控制情緒,正常人的以偏概全之偏見形成信念,推動行為  - 過去兒時經驗、教育、偏面醫療信息病毒入腦

4) 社會、法律、醫療制度尊重人性弱點,不求改善等於助長人性弱點。有病壓力正常,尊重壓力下之病態 (舊框內理性)選擇。有病壓力下,人性更自動強化保護舊思維,視不同意見之忠言更逆耳。