Errors in  perception (processing of information) and cognition


 all or none, simple answer to complex problem to ease the conscious mind

deletion, generalization, distortion of information

loss aversion bias

false sense of certainty, denial of uncertainty, confirmation bias, reluctance to change

culture of conformity and orthodoxy

action bias, search satisfaction bias, bias inside the box, perfection (ego) bias

disease bias (fear of disease, death, pain...)

dependence mindset -  lack of self- responsibility, disease is not my fault (protective mindset about pride), I can do little about it.

All-or-nothing thinking

Looking at things in black-or-white categories, with no middle ground (“If I fall short of perfection, I’m a total failure.”)


Generalizing from a single negative experience, expecting it to hold true forever (“I didn’t get hired for the job. I’ll never get any job.”)

The mental filter

Focusing on the negatives while filtering out all the positives. Noticing the one thing that went wrong, rather than all the things that went right.

Diminishing the positive

Coming up with reasons why positive events don’t count (“I did well on the presentation, but that was just dumb luck.”)

Jumping to conclusions

Making negative interpretations without actual evidence. You act like a mind reader (“I can tell she secretly hates me.”) or a fortune teller (“I just know something terrible is going to happen.”)


Expecting the worst-case scenario to happen (“The pilot said we’re in for some turbulence. The plane’s going to crash!”)

Emotional reasoning

Believing that the way you feel reflects reality (“I feel frightened right now. That must mean I’m in real physical danger.”)

'Shoulds’ and ‘should-nots’

Holding yourself to a strict list of what you should and shouldn’t do¾and beating yourself up if you break any of the rules


Labeling yourself based on mistakes and perceived shortcomings (“I’m a failure; an idiot; a loser.”)


Assuming responsibility for things that are outside your control (“It’s my fault my son got in an accident. I should have warned him to drive carefully in the rain.”)